Multiferroics

Multiferroics_2.pngThe neutron scattering investigations of the multiferroics.

The investigation of the physical basis of the coexistence of different kinds of long-range ordering is one of the most interesting current directions in physics of strongly correlated systems. Four types of ordering are recognized which have different symmetry in regard to time or space reversal: ferroelastic, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, ferrotoroidic (fig. 1).

 

 

 

Opal-like Structures and Inverse Opal-like Structures

Photonic crystals (PCs) with three-dimensional (3D) periodicity of dielectric structures, called artificial opals, or Opal-like Structures, have attracted much attention in the past decade for their ability in light manipulation, which has potential applications in the area of photonics [1]. The inverse opal-like structures (inverse OLS) can be used as eliminators of unwanted heat from the thermal emission sources [2], in the conventional lighting field for increasing efficiency and obtaining improved thermophotovoltaic devices [3], as piezoelectric transducers, solar cells, phosphors, short-wavelength light emitters [4], gas sensors [5] and so on.

 

 

  

 

Extreme states of nuclear matter

Studying extremely hot and dense nuclear matter is a very important problem of high energy physics.Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) predicts the existence of a new state of matter - the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), which may be formed in relativistic nuclear collisions [1]. The study of the properties of the QGP is associated a number of fundamental problems, such as phase transitions in nuclear matter, the state of the QCD vacuum, the evolution of the universe and the mechanisms of  neutron starsformation.